Aktualności Neurologiczne (Current Neurology) gets an IF!

We are proud and pleased to announce that “Aktualności Neurologiczne” (Current Neurology) has joined the elite group of periodicals with an Impact Factor (IF). Our IF for 2022 is <0.1.

March 1, 2023 – change in the method of sending papers to the editorial office

On March 1, 2023, a new submission system has been launched. The manuscripts with all their attachments should be submitted via publishing platform Journals System.

The mechanism of action of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

CD20 is a transmembrane molecule located on the surface of a major population of cells belonging to the B lymphocyte lineage. Although the significance of this protein remains unknown, the presence of CD20 is a marker for mature circulating B cells. Monoclonal antibodies against CD20 are able to quickly and effectively eliminate circulating B lymphocytes. Four different anti-CD20 antibodies have been studied in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab and ublituximab. 

Marcin P. Mycko
Aktualn Neurol 2023; 23 (3): 72–78
OPERA and ORATORIO – how the world has been changed by “music”

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease that progresses over time, leading to disability. The condition is still incurable, but available therapies are increasingly effective. Ocrelizumab is the first anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting and primary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. In the article, based on the results of the OPERA and ORATORIO clinical trials, their extensions, and post-hoc and meta-analyses, the evidence for long-term high effectiveness of the molecule is presented.

Ewa Krzystanek, Robert Bonek
Aktualn Neurol 2023; 23 (3): 84–92
Long-term efficacy of ocrelizumab in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis – case reports

Treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis, despite the availability of many therapies, remains a challenge. The introduction of ocrelizumab, a highly effective therapy, has significantly improved the control of disease activity. The article discusses four different cases of patients treated with ocrelizumab, including one patient with newly diagnosed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, one case of treatment modification after ineffective first-line therapy, and two cases of long-term follow-up of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. 

Ewa Krzystanek, Waldemar Brola, Marcin Wnuk
Aktualn Neurol 2023; 23 (3): 93–104
New directions in ocrelizumab therapy in multiple sclerosis: higher doses and subcutaneous therapy

Ocrelizumab is the first anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ocrelizumab is administered intravenously (i.v.) at a dose of 600 mg every six months. It is a highly effective drug strongly inhibiting inflammatory changes in the central nervous system, which nearly completely prevents the development of new active magnetic resonance imaging lesions and clinical relapses. Pharmacokinetic studies and data from post hoc analyses of ocrelizumab pivotal studies suggest that a higher dose than the current dose level might have a stronger therapeutic impact. 

Krzysztof Selmaj, Igor Selmaj
Aktualn Neurol 2023; 23 (3): 118–124
Management of burning mouth syndrome

In this review, we discuss some practical strategies that can be useful for clinicians in the interdisciplinary and individualised management of patients with burning mouth syndrome. Burning mouth syndrome (stomatodynia, glossodynia) is a chronic, idiopathic pain syndrome accompanied by a sensation of pain or burning, scalding, pinching, numbness or stinging without clinical changes in oral cavity mucosa in the absence of abnormalities in additional tests. In addition to the above symptoms, burning mouth syndrome is characterised by a sensation of oral dryness (xerostomia), distortion of the sense of taste (dysgeusia), and food hypersensitivity. 

Hanna Hüpsch-Marzec, Paweł Cieślik, Agnieszka Gorzkowska
Aktualn Neurol 2023, 23 (2), p. 36–40
Differential diagnosis of conversion disorders and dysarthria. Case report

The differential diagnosis of conversion speech disorders and dysarthria is difficult, and publications on the topic are scarce. This study describes the case of a 47-year-old woman with conversion disorders mimicking post-stroke dysarthria. A speechlanguage pathologist analysed the record of the woman’s speech. 

Anna Lis-Skowrońska, Olga Jauer-Niworowska, Przemysław Ireneusz Skowroński
Aktualn Neurol 2023, 23 (2), p. 52–59
Complicated intracranial hypotension as a consequence of electric scooter accident. Case report

The article presents the case of a 41-year-old man who was hospitalised because of neck and occipital pain with nausea. The patient had previously suffered an injury while riding an electric scooter. Computed tomography showed subdural haematomas and cerebral venous sinuses thrombosis, while magnetic resonance imaging confirmed intracranial hypotension.

Beata Łabuz-Roszak, Aleksandra Morajko, Alicja Sierakowska, Krzysztof Kandziora
Aktualn Neurol 2023, 23 (2), p. 60–66
Inflammatory cerebral amyloid angiopathy with poor outcome – case report

The article presents a clinical case of a 62-year-old patient diagnosed with inflammatory amyloid angiopathy after extensive diagnostic imaging and based on the characteristic radiological picture. Inflammatory amyloid angiopathy is a rare condition with intermediate features between the classic form of amyloid angiopathy and primary central nervous system angiitis.

Dariusz Dziubek, Karolina Dziubek
Aktualn Neurol 2023, 23 (2), p. 67–71
Analysis of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-8, and TNF-α in children with seizure disorders during acute infection. Is there a specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in these patients?

This study aimed to analyse the levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in children with seizures during acute infection. The study was conducted in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Child Neurology of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences from 19 January 2017 to 5 December 2020. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in 64 patients with febrile seizures and 11 patients after an epileptic seizure in generalised epilepsy. The control group comprised 46 patients with delayed development. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined using the BioLegend’s ELISA MAX™ Deluxe Set. Pathogens were detected by standard diagnostic methods. Total white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were determined using standard diagnostic methods. 

Grażyna Bugaj, Anna Mania, Magdalena Frydrychowicz, Agnieszka Górna, Karol Lubarski, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Magdalena Figlerowicz
Aktualn Neurol 2023, 23 (1), p. 1–13
Immunotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease – new treatment, old problems

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Despite strenuous research and numerous clinical trials, no registered causal treatment exists in Europe; however, such pharmacotherapy is already available in the United States (aducanumab and lecanemab). Positive results of immunotherapy clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease, both completed and still ongoing, give hope for finding safe substances that would effectively inhibit the development of Alzheimer’s disease (donanemab pending registration or remternetug in the research phase).

Anna Barczak
Aktualn Neurol 2023, 23 (1), p. 14–18
The role of sex hormones in multiple sclerosis

Biological differences associated with sexual dimorphism have an impact on many aspects of health, including disease susceptibility, course and prognosis. Significant differences in the incidence and severity of neurological diseases, especially those of autoimmune origin, were found between women and men. Although the reasons for the observed discrepancies are complex, research indicates the key role of sex hormones, which are known to be responsible for the differences in body structure, genitals and sexual behaviour in women and men. Recent data have drawn attention to their impact on the function of the immune and nervous systems, the brain and the spinal cord in particular.

Barbara Anna Lewandowska, Bartosz Bielecki
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (4), p. 157–166
The first Polish experiences with SC natalizumab

Natalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, that binds to the integrin α4-subunit, inhibits the adhesion of lymphocytes to vascular endothelial cells and their infiltration into the central nervous system. In April 2021, a subcutaneous form of natalizumab, which until recently could only be administered intravenously, was registered in the European Union. In this paper, we present four patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis of different duration, treated with natalizumab. The presented clinical cases are a summary of the first Polish experiences with subcutaneous natalizumab.

Katarzyna Kapica-Topczewska, Paulina Matys, Elżbieta Jasińska, Maciej Huć, Ryszard Sędziak, Katarzyna Kubicka-Bączyk, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Alina Kułakowska
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (4), p. 192–201
The impact of natalizumab treatment in pregnancy on neonatal outcomes

Multiple sclerosis is a common autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system in women of reproductive age. The average age of onset is around 30 years. A few decades ago, women with multiple sclerosis were often advised to avoid pregnancy, but this has changed. Discontinuation of treatment due to pregnancy is often associated with clinical and radiological progression of multiple sclerosis. According to current expert recommendations, if a patient presents with highly active multiple sclerosis, continuation of treatment with natalizumab may be considered even during pregnancy. Treatment can be continued until 30–34 weeks of gestation and resumed as soon as possible after delivery, 2–3 weeks after childbirth or 8–12 weeks after the last infusion, to reduce the risk of disease reactivation. The dosing interval should be extended to 6 weeks. This article presents the case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who has been successfully treated with natalizumab for several years and decided to continue her treatment during pregnancy, with an emphasis on the impact of the drug on the newborn’s laboratory parameters.

Anna Karbicka
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (4), p. 202–206
Assessment of selected inflammatory markers in bacterial and viral neuroinfections in children

The aim of the study was to assess the suggested biomarkers’ usefulness in diagnosing central nervous system infections in order to optimise treatment and minimise adverse outcomes. The study included a comprehensive comparison of the known parameters and a search for correlations with proposed biomarkers. The data of 73 hospitalised children were reviewed. According to their final diagnoses, 42 participants were assigned to the control group, 13 to the cohort with bacterial and 18 to the cohort with viral neuroinfections. The children underwent clinically indicated blood and cerebrospinal fluid tests. The serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and neopterin concentrations, and S100B protein and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were determined. The results were compared between the groups and correlations were sought.

Karol Lubarski, Anna Mania, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Paweł Małecki, Cezary Witczak, Magdalena Figlerowicz
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (3), p. 115–122
CCL3 and CCL5 as potential markers of carotid atherosclerotic plaque stability – preliminary research

Carotid atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of ischaemic stroke. The study verified the hypothesis on the relationship between the expression of selected inflammatory markers and the stability of atherosclerotic plaque in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to determine CCL3 and CCL5 levels in both plasma and carotid atherosclerotic plaques in relation to the history of ischaemic stroke, as well as to assess plaque morphology and stability.

Maria Konarska-Król, Piotr Szpakowski, Piotr Kaźmierski, Andrzej Głąbiński
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (3), p. 123–129
Do increased serum IL-12 and IL-23 levels affect cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis? A preliminary study

To compare the serum levels of IL-12 and IL-23 between healthy volunteers and patients with multiple sclerosis with regard to their cognitive function. A total of 21 patients with multiple sclerosis and 21 healthy individuals were enrolled into the study. The individuals were age- and sex-matched. Each participant was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to assess the serum levels of IL-12 and IL-23. The results obtained indicate that IL-12 and IL-23 may not play a role in the development of cognitive impairment. The assessment of cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis may have a screening value in preventing their cognitive deterioration.

Anna Nowaczewska-Kuchta, Paulina Mizera, Piotr Szpakowski, Igor Bednarski, Jędrzej Lesman, Karol Jastrzębski
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (2), p. 75–79
Manual therapy improves symptom severity and disability in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

The aim of the study was to assess early outcomes of manual therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. In this study, patients diagnosed with electrophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome received manual therapy. The therapy was used in 41 individuals who received one session in line with IFOMPT (International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists) standards per week for 5 weeks. We observed significant change in DASH score and quality of life. Grip strength tended to improve, but the effect was statistically significant only in patients over 50 years of age. Symptom severity (Carpal Tunnel 6 score, Douleur Neuropathique 4 score and peripheral cutaneous threshold assessed with Semmes–Weinstein monofilament) improved significantly. There was no significant correlation between changes in DASH score and grip strength.

Przemysław Tadeusz Wielemborek, Katarzyna Kapica-Topczewska, Robert Pogorzelski, Agata Bartoszuk, Rafał Kułakowski, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Jan Kochanowicz, Alina Kułakowska
Aktualn Neurol 2022, 22 (2), p. 80–85

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