Vertebral artery dissection is a disease that occurs rarely, but binding, however, with serious consequences. It is estimated that this is one of the most common causes of ischemic stroke in people under 45 years of age. The diagnosis of vertebral artery damage is easier when the patient shows signs of the occurrence of neck injury (e.g. cut injuries). However, the dissection of the vessel may also be a result of the so-called blunt trauma to the mechanism of “whip” for example, during an accident or during application of the abdominal pressure. Initially there is a rupture of the arterial intima, followed by the detachment and the formation of thrombus. This leads to the formation of thrombus or narrowing the lumen closure resulting in a clinical cerebral ischemia and neurological symptoms. Thrombus formation in the so-called misrepresent the artery can also be a source of embolic material. In case of suspicion of vertebral artery dissection are important: monitoring the neurological status of the patient and careful diagnosis of vascular. The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge about the causes of damage to the vertebral arteries, characteristic of the symptoms, diagnostic options and treatments and negotiations. It is believed that early diagnosis of arterial dissection and application of treatment increases the chance of survival and the patient avoid permanent neurological complications.