Concept of dynamic localization of function in rehabilitation of aphatic speech disorders

Klinika Neurochirurgii i Onkologii Układu Nerwowego, II Katedra Chirurgii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi

AKTUALN NEUROL 2012, 12 (4), p. 215–221
ABSTRACT

Prompt and effective therapeutic intervention in patients with aphasia provides several benefits. First and foremost it reduces the risk of development of pathological patterns of verbal response, increasing the chances for earlier recovery of psychomotor functions and affecting favourably the patient’ comfort. There are several theories explaining the mechanism of development of aphasias and several techniques of assistance offered to people affected. Great variety of speech disorders necessitates implementation of diverse therapies and adjusting them to individual patient’s needs. The dynamic theory of location of cognition and the concept of functional system presented in this paper, establish a rationale for treatment of disorders resulting from brain injury. According to the premises of the dynamic localization theory, execution of all higher mental functions, including speech, involves variable activation several brain areas. Disturbed functions may undergo restorative processes as a result of structural rearrangement within the framework of the dynamic system, utilizing unaffected regions of both cerebral hemispheres. Hence, the dynamic theory of location of function encourages initiation of rehabilitation, also in patients with substantial functional loss, providing hope and the feeling of partnership, both to patients and their families. The authors discuss the impact of disturbed neurophysiological processes on purposeful use of articulated speech and present several practical exercises designed to help patients affected with various types of aphasia.

Keywords: aphasia, psychomotor disorders, functional system, rehabilitation, speech therapy