The search for inflammatory biomarkers of ischaemic stroke

Oddział Kliniczny Propedeutyki Neurologicznej z Pododdziałem Udarowym, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, WSS im. M. Kopernika

AKTUALN NEUROL 2011, 11 (2), p. 106-110

The search for stroke biomarkers has been initiated several years ago. Commonly available and sensitive biomarkers of stroke are still not available for the early diagnosis of this disease as well as for monitoring of its treatment. The ideal stroke biomarker should be very specific to differentiate stroke from other clinically similar diseases like complicated migraine, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), multiple sclerosis or posticus paralysis. Moreover, its concentration in the blood should correlate with the concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Additionally it should be detectable shortly after stroke clinical signs appearance and should allow to differentiate between TIA and stroke or ischaemic stroke with haemorrhagic stroke. Good stroke biomarker should be also an useful indicator of effectiveness of stroke treatment. In this review we present potential inflammatory biomarkers tested in stroke and their experimental models. The most commonly analysed inflammatory biomarkers are C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 1, 6, 8, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Currently available results suggest that there are a few potentially interesting inflammatory biomarkers of stroke but still further studies are necessary to confirm their usefulness in this field.

Keywords: ischaemic stroke, biomarkers, atherosclerosis, inflammation, cytokines