Background: Leptin is an adipocytokine with potentially anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect. Leptin is a proof that adipose tissue is not only a store of energy but it is the reservoir of very important for human body hormones too. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the leptin level in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and estimate correlation between leptin and risk factors of vascular diseases. Material and methods: To the study we qualified 72 patients with acute ischaemic stroke and 29 referents without CNS diseases, matched with age and gender. In all subjects we examined lipid pattern, blood glucose level, blood pressure, BMI and central fat markers – WC (waist circumference) and WHR (waist to hip ratio). In all patients we diagnosed the presence of metabolic syndrome, according to NCEP and IDF. Leptin level was measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In every patient we evaluated CIMT and presence of arteriosclerosis. In stroke group we estimated the neurological deficit according to NIHSS, in I and VII day of hospitalisation. Results: The leptin level was higher in stroke group. Hyperleptinaemia is more often present in patients with abdominal obesity (p<0.001), enlarged CIMT (p<0.01), present of arteriosclerosis (p<0.05) and in subjects with metabolic syndrome (p<0.01). There is no independent association between increased leptin concentrations and glucose levels, presence of hypertension, level of TG and HDL. In patients with worse neurological status (higher NIHSS) we observed higher leptin levels. Conclusions: High leptin level can have an important role in pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke, for example by influence on arteriosclerosis. Identification the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases can improve the prophylaxis of ischaemic stroke.