Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and its subtypes

Zakład Patologii Molekularnej i Neuropatologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi

AKTUALN NEUROL 2011, 11 (1), p. 29-37
ABSTRACT

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common type of human prion disease. Similarly to other prion diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is incurable and invariably fatal disorder. The disease is clinically, molecularly and neuropathologically heterogeneous. Apart from familial, iatrogenic and variant CJD there are at least 6 subtypes of sporadic form of CJD. The typical triad of clinical symptoms of sCJD (rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, typical EEG) is not always present. The definite disease still can be diagnosed only by neuropathological or molecular analysis of the brain tissue. Taking into consideration that brain biopsy is rarely performed in prion diseases, most definite diagnoses are done post mortem. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis can be improved by using the new diagnostic criteria based on MRI findings, EEG, 14-3-3 protein test and clinical symptoms. All suspected cases should be monitored and the history of surgery, endoscopy, blood transfusion and family cases should be taken.

Keywords: prion, prion diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, neuropathology, imaging